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Air Ticket

Holding an international air ticket in hands for the first time you can be confused by the abundance of incomprehensible information and meaningless characters. In fact, the rules of IATA (International Air Transport Association) require that the ticket issued by a single agent should be understandable by any other agent, wherever in the world he is. Therefore, each ticket contains detailed information about all the details of the flight, route, fare and restrictions imposed by these fare for transportation.

Passenger ticket and baggage check are the official contract between the passenger and the airline carriers. Passengers without tickets can not be taken on the flight, in addition, for each passenger a ticket must be issued.
On the white pages of the ticket cover you'll find the "Terms and Conditions of an Agreement", as well as additional information.
The main documents regulating the rights and obligations of the passenger and the carrier are:
"Warsaw Convention", signed on October 12 1929. in Warsaw
"Hague Protocol", signed on 28 September 1955. In Hague
"General conditions of carriage (passengers and baggage)"

Nowadays three types of sheets for ticket are widely used in the world: an automatically copied ticket("sandwich"), an automatic coupon ticket with a boarding pass, manual form. A special case is an electronic ticket, it gets more widespread popularity.
Automatically copied ticket ("sandwich"). Transitional Automated Ticket (TAT)
This type of ticket is the most common in Russia and Ukraine, due to the fact that the ticket is used by Transaero, Aeroflot, KLM, SAS, Malev, CSA, etc. The ticket is a "sandwich", which consists of few coupons. Each coupon blank is provided with a photocopier layer. When you print a ticket all the information "punch" through, so that each coupon contains information about all the others. This is the main advantage of the TAT blank over "coupon" ATB forms, where each coupon is printed separately from the others. The most widely used form with four flight coupons. If the route has less flights, then on the "extra" coupons on the line "Itinerary" (2) the word "VOID" is printed (not valid for transportation), and the coupon is "pulled" out by the agent. The last coupon (usually white) is a passenger copy and is left for you for the report, but only after you fully use the ticket (the ticket without the passenger coupon is not valid).
Automatic ticket coupon with a boarding pass. Automated Ticket / Boarding Pass.
At the moment the most advanced form of the ticket. Each flight coupon, unlike TAT form, is printed separately and is equipped with a magnetic strip that contains information about the flight. Due to this, this form can be used for automatic registration. Each coupon is also equipped with pull-boarding pass (right side), in which at the registration passenger seat is printed, gate number and boarding time. As a passenger copy a separate coupon is printed - "PASSENGER RECIEPT". From the companies represented in Ukraine and Russia this type of form is used by Lufthansa, Air France, Swissair, Finnair and many others.

Manual form of ticket. Manual Issued Ticket
Since devices for printing tickets are very expensive, as probably all highly specialized devices, this type of forms is not widely spread in the agencies. Besides, it is impossible to print tickets of different airlines from one printer, so if you buy a ticket at the agency, it is likely your flight will be written exactly in the manual form. Airlines also have an "emergency" manual tickets reserve for the case of shutdown or malfunction of the printer. The most widely used are forms with 2 or 4 coupons. Each coupon is equipped with a photocopier layer, so any coupon contains information about all the others. If the number of flights on your route is less than the number of coupons in the form, then the word "VOID" is written on the "extra" flight coupons, and the coupons are "pulled out" of the ticket. The last coupon (usually white) is a passenger copy and is left for you for the report, but only after you fully use the ticket (the ticket without the passenger coupon is not valid).

E-ticket. Electronic Ticket
This type of ticket achieves more popularity, thanks to the complete absence of any form. A ticket is a kind of electronic record, stored in the airline's computer , where the traditional coupons are replaced by an electronic equivalent. Because neither agency or any other airline (only if does not cooperate with the airline which issued the ticket) do not “see”this record fully, then that ticket can be issued only if the entire flight is made by a single airline. Today in this type of ticket is used almost in all airlines in Ukraine and Russia. A bit unusual to pay money for a ticket and do not get anything in return, except the payment receipt, but how many opportunities does the Internet open!
1. NAME OF PASSENGER (First and Last names of passenger)
Indicated in Latin letters (in accordance with the writing of the names in the international passport). After last name goes slash then first letter or the full first name, and then goes space and symbol (MR - Mister, MRS / MSS - Miss or Mistress.). IATA Standards allows up to 3 errors in this margin.
If the ticket was issued using the age discounts in this column can also be specified the date of birth of passengers (as required by airlines).
2. FROM / TO ( Trip Route)
Everywhere English spelling of the names of towns and airports is used. Each ticket coupon allows you to travel between two cities, which are highlighted by a different colour on this coupon (usually dark colour). Cities are placed top-down, that is the first flight will be between the top point and the one below it. If there are few different airports in the town their three-letter codes are written after the name of the town. If the route does not fit in one form (one form can contain maximum 4 flight coupons), the continuation of the route is made on the following form, a number of which is specified in the column "CONJUNCTION TICKETS" (8)
3. STOPOVER (Indicator "stopover". X / O (no / yes))
If in this city stopover is more than 24 hours ("stopover"), then this line is empty or there is written "O". If the passenger does not stay here more than for a day, then in this line is written "X". Application of the stopover affects the overall cost of the ticket by the airport taxes, since in the case of absence of a "stopover", some taxes are not paid, that allows you to reduce the price of a ticket.
Two-letter code of airline carrier. The codes are defined by IATA (International Air Transport Association), for example:
SU - Aeroflot,
LH - Lufthansa,
AF - Air France.
5. FLIGHT (Number of Flight)
6. CLASS (Class of reservation)
Latin letter indicating membership in a particular class.
F, P, A - first class.
J, C, D, I, Z - business class.
W, S, Y, B, H, K, L, M, N, Q, T, V, X - economy class.
7. DATE (Date of departure)
Can be fixed (in this case the date is stated on the ticket).
May be open - if at the time of the ticket purchase the passenger had not decided on the exact date of his/her trip, the code "Open" is written in the “Date” column in the ticket. To book desired date of flight, and then fill in it to the ticket, the passenger should contact the sale agency or airline.
8. TIME (Time of departure)
Specifies the local time of departure. Time of arrival, beginning and ending of the registration, and baggage registration are not indicated in the ticket.
9. STATUS (Status of booking)
OK - guarantees you a seat in the cabin;
NS - means that there are no seats in the cabin (for children under 2 years);
RQ / SA - non-guaranteed reservation / flight is possible only if free seat is available.
Usually status is "OK". Sometimes ticket can be issued with the status "RQ" (Request seat at the registration). Status of the ticket for children under 2 years who are flying without a seat is "NS".
Alphanumeric indication of fare code, upon which the conditions of this fares are determined.
Time limit of the ticket (if available). In other words, this is the date earlier or later from which you can not fly with this flight coupon (if fare rules allow changes of dates). For the majority of "hard" reduced tariffs both dates coincide with the departure date for this coupon. If the columns are empty, it means that the ticket is valid for at least a year.
12. Baggage allowance.
Generally, in this column the amount indicates in kilograms. Also in this column may be given the ticket code "PC" (mostly on flights to / from / in America). This code means that the passenger can take 2 items of luggage weighing 32 kg each (not more!) and, total of 3 measurements (height, width, length) of each of them should not exceed, as a rule, 158 cm. European destinations ticket provides transportation of 20 kg baggage for economy class and 30 kg for business class.
Calculation of the fare for sections of the journey. In this column calculation of flight fare is given, indicating the amounts charged separately for each flight. Calculation consists of three-letter codes of the cities, two-character codes of the carriers and fare components in the NUC (Neutral Units of Construction). Also combined rate is itemized here (airport tax), if all charges do not fit in column 17. The column can contain service information: recalculation rates of neutral units, currencies, various restrictive labels (if they do not fit in columns 22 and 25).
14. FARE
The value of the fare. It is indicated in the currency accepted for calculating the fare in place of the first point of departure. For example, if the ticket is issued for the route London - Kiev, the fare will be stated in pounds (GBP).
In countries with inconvertible currencies (including Ukraine and Russia) fares are published in U.S. dollars. If the ticket is issued by a confidential fare (see "All about the fares"), the rate in this column may be omitted (replaced by the icon "IT" or "FORFAIT").
The total cost of the ticket. The total price of the ticket is indicated (fare plus airport taxes, excluding sales tax) in the currency of the country where this ticked was issued. In Ukraine for different airlines it can be hryvnia and U.S. Dollars. (Also, there may be stated "IT" or "FORFAIT")
16. EQUIV / FARE PD (Equivalent of the Fare)

Specified in the currency of the issuing point (if the currency of the point of issuing differs from the currency of departure point). The conversion rate should be specified in lines 22, 25 or 13.
17. TAX
Here two-letter sign and the amount of airport tax are indicated. If all charges will not fit into this column, the "total" rate is indicated in the last column (the sum of all remaining charges).
Here are indicated additional fees for services provided at the airport: takeoff, landing, security, etc. In most countries airport taxes are included in the ticket price and are paid in advance, but there are some countries (Thailand, Mauritius, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Barbados, Kenya and others), where an additional tax is charged, and this tax is payed by passengers in cash at the airport when departing from the country.
Form of payment for the ticket.
There are following options:
INVOICE or INV (non-cash payment)
CC - credit card number - (credit card).
Three-letter designation of the departure point and after slash the arrival point of the whole route. There may be also symbols SITI, SOTO, and so on.
20. AIRLINE DATA (Reservation number)
Code for this reservation in a computer system (PNR CODE).
Stamp of the agency which sold the ticket. Must contain the name of the agency, his short address, unique office number, i.e. number of IATA. Alphanumeric reference of the agent who issued the ticket. Date of issue of the ticket.
An indication of the restrictions for this fare. There are many different rates (annual, excursion, group, special fare PEX, special fare APEX, youth, etc.). Conditions of these fares may be different. As a rule, the cheaper the ticket, the more rigid restrictions will be applied to the fare of the ticket. Main conditions for the fare are stated in this column.
The most common limitations associated with the following operations:
"Rebooking" - rebooking of the ticket
"Refund" – return of the ticket
"Endorsements" - the possibility of the carrier exchange (possible an indication of the use of a specific carrier's flight - for example, if in the line "LH ONLY" is specified , it means that the ticket is valid for flights of "Lufthansa" only).
The presence of the words "No / Non" before above mentioned terms means the impossibility of these operations according to the applicable fare.
The presence of the word "fee" after the above mentioned terms and specification of a certain amount mean the sum of the fine for this transaction according to the applicable fare. For example "REB FEE USD50" or "NON REF" mean: "the penalty for changing reservations - 50 U.S. dollars" or "refund is impossible."
The presence of the word "free" after the above mentioned terms means the possibility of these transactions for free according to the applicable tariff.
"Fare restrictions apply" - means that there are a number of special restrictions for the fare of the ticket. These limitations are since theirs great number, are not listed in this column. The passenger is informed about the above mentioned restrictions when booking the ticket.
If the ticket is issued in exchange for another, number of the initial ticket is written in this line. The meaning of rewriting of the tickets is easier to understand from an example. You bought a ticket Singapore - Moscow - Singapore, came to Moscow and decided to change the route Moscow - Bangkok. In this case, the agent will recalculate the cost of flight for the new route (from Singapore, i.e. Singapore - Moscow - Bangkok) and deduct this sum from the price of the "old" ticket. If the new ticket is more expensive, then you will have to pay a certain sum, if it's cheaper then the agent will issue you a receipt (MCO – Miscellaneous Charges Order), with which you can get the amount you owed at the place of ticket purchase. The number of "old" tickets will be written in line 23 of "new" ticket. The same procedure of the ticket issue when paying PTA ("Prepaid Ticket Advice"). Your ticket is paid for by a certain person (sponsor) at other place, not at the point of the beginning of your trip and tells who (i.e. you) and where will come to pick up a ticket. A receipt will be issued for sponsor (MCO - Miscellaneous Charges Order), and the number of this receipt will be written in the line 23.
This line indicates the number of previous / next ticket if the passenger route does not fit in one form (since the ticket form can contain a maximum of 4 coupons, the ticket may indicate no more than 4 flights). As required by some airlines (e.g., "Aeroflot") in this column the number of all tickets of this route are indicated.
Only for manual forms. Contains information that does not fit in lines 13 and 22.
Code that are used when issuing confidential or special fare.
27. Ticket number
Airline code (first 3 digits). For example, 555 - Aeroflot. And also another 10 digits - serial number of the ticket.
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